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Courses After 12th Science In Medical Field

Career Options After 12th Science Medical In Field

In India, medical education continues to be one of the most prestigious branches of higher studies.

The number one choice for medical field aspirants has always been an M.B.B.S. degree. A major number of students choose Science (PCB or PCMB) after 10th with a dream of landing up in any of the best M.B.B.S. colleges in India or abroad.

However, the list of medical courses is quite extensive and includes many other courses like B.H.M.S., B.A.M.S., B.Sc. Nursing, B.D.S., B.O.T., etc. at bachelor’s level along with a number of other Certificate and Diploma courses.

In this article, I have mentioned eight such alternatives the demand for which has increased over time.

  1. B.D.S.(Bachelor of Dental Surgery)

B.D.S. is an undergraduate course in dentistry. The Dental Council of India awards this degree to a student on completion of 5 years of study including one year of internship.

With a B.D.S. degree, one can proceed to join Government or Private Hospitals, Indian Defense Services, Public Health Centres, Community Health Centers or start one’s clinic.

However, after completion of B.D.S. pursuing a Masters in Dental Surgery (M.D.S.) would uplift one’s career prospects significantly.


At the undergraduate level, there are no specializations. However, at master’s (M.D.S.) level candidates are available with numerous specializations such as:

  • Oral Medicine
  • Endodontics
  • Oral Pathology
  • Orthodontics
  • Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
  • Community Dentistry
  • Periodontics
  • Prosthodontics
  • Pediatric Dentistry


The duration of B.D.S. is 5 years including 1 year of internship.


Candidates must have passed 10+2 with either Physics, Chemistry & Biology (PCB) or Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics & Biology (PCMB). Besides the candidate must have scored at least 50% marks. Most of the Dental Colleges in India provide admission on the basis of national/state/college level entrance exams.

Some of the best colleges:

  1. B.H.M.S.(Bachelor of Homoeopathic Medicine and Surgery)

According to the World Health Organization, homeopathy is recognized as the second largest healing system in the world.

What makes this branch popular among people around the world is that it does not cause any side effects on the body.

According to an ASSOCHAM (The Associated Chambers of Commerce of India) report, there has been a consistent and significant increase in the number of people resorting to Homoeopathy over Allopathy.

As per the same report, the number of patients resorting to Homoeopathic treatments was 40 to 50 million in 2006-07, which grew up to 120 million in 2011.

This shows the expanding scope for this branch of Medicine in India and countries.

To start a career in homeopathy, after 12th, one must get a B.H.M.S. degree.


  • Gynaecology
  • Pediatrics
  • Homoeopathic Pharmacy
  • Psychiatry
  • Obstetrics
  • Dermatology


The duration of B.H.M.S. is 5 ½ years including 1 year of internship.


Candidate must have passed 10+2 (Physics, Chemistry, and Biology) with at least 50% marks from any recognized board. Moreover, most of the homeopathy colleges in India provide admission on the basis of state and national level entrance examinations conducted commonly for M.B.B.S. and B.D.S.

Some of the top colleges for B.H.M.S. are:

  1. B.A.M.S. (Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine, & Surgery)

Ayurveda has gained acute importance among people in the last decade. It is about curing the root of a disease, not its symptoms; this is one of the reasons that people have started preferring it to other means of treatment.

The other reason that lures people towards Ayurveda is that it has turned out to be a permanent cure for chronic diseases like cancer and diabetes and is less expensive as compared to the allopathic treatments.

All this has led to an increasing demand for Ayurvedic Doctors in India.

To have a career as an Ayurvedic Doctor, you need to get a B.A.M.S. degree. A B.A.M.S. degree provides one the same status as an M.B.B.S. degree. This degree enables one to prefix Dr. before one’s name.


The duration of B.A.M.S. is 5 ½ years including 1 year of internship.


Candidate must have passed 10+2 examination with at least 50% marks from any recognized board. Most Ayurveda Institutes/colleges provide admission on the basis of state/nation/college level entrance tests.

Some of the Top Colleges for B.A.M.S.:

  1. B.Pharm.(Bachelor of Pharmacy)/D.Pharm. (Diploma in Pharmacy)

Pharmacy is the science of preparing and dispensing medicines. A Pharmacist usually dispenses drugs according to the prescriptions written by a Doctor.

D.Pharm. enables one to obtain a license to open a drug store. While B.Pharm. lets you be a medical representative at any of the Pharmacy companies or pursue a Master’s degree (M.Pharm.), if you are further interested in research.


B.Pharm. is a generalized course with no specializations. However, at Master’s (M.Pharm.) level candidates have the following main specializations to choose from:

  • Pharmacognosy
  • Pharmaceutical Chemistry
  • Pharmaceutics
  • Pharmacology
  • Biochemistry
  • Pharmaceutical Engineering
  • Biopharmaceutics
  • Drug Regulatory Affairs


  • B.Pharm. (4 years)
  • D.Pharm. (2 years)


Candidate must have passed 10+2 (PCB) examination from any recognized board. Most of the Pharmacy colleges offer admission on the basis of state or national level entrance examinations conducted every year.

  1. B.Sc. Nursing/D.G.N.M./R.A.N.M.

As per a WHO report, there is an urgent requirement of nurses not only in India but also in other developed countries. Countries like US, UK and UAE hire nurses from developing countries like India at fairly handsome salary packages.

This demand for nurses has been there for a long time; even then the number of students enrolling for nursing courses has remained low. The reason behind this is that conventionally Nursing was considered to be a female dominated profession. Besides, the job of a nurse is among the most challenging jobs as they have to work long hours and handle a lot of physical and mental stress.

However, considering the career prospects and high salary packages offered to nurses, even male candidates have started to enroll for nursing courses, Kerala is one leading example.

Only candidates aged between 17 to 35 years are eligible to apply for Nursing courses. The duration and eligibility criteria for different Nursing courses are hereunder:

Course Duration Eligibility
B.Sc. Nursing 4 years Candidate must have passed 10+2 with Science (PCB) with at least 45% marks from any recognized board.
Diploma in General Nursing and Midwifery Courses (D.G.N.M.) 3 ½ years Candidate must have passed 10+2 with relevant subjects from any recognized board.
Revised Auxiliary Nurse and Midwife 1 ½ year Candidate must have passed 10+2 with relevant subjects from any recognized board.
Post Basic B.Sc. Nursing 2 years Candidate must have passed GNM (General Nursing & Midwifery) from any recognized Nursing School.

Some of the best colleges for Nursing are:

  1. B.P.T. (Bachelor of Physiotherapy)

Physiotherapy is the treatment of injuries, diseases and disabilities by means of massage, exercise, and other physical methods instead of medicines and drugs.

Courses like D.P.T. (Diploma in Physiotherapy) and B.Sc. Physiotherapy are also available for Physiotherapy students. However, if you are looking to work in private sector, B.P.T. is the most sought after degree by employers.

Note: There is still some confusion as to whether Physiotherapists can use the prefix “Dr.” before their name or not.


4 ½ years


  • Cardiopulmonary
  • Geriatric
  • Neurological
  • Orthopaedic
  • Paediatric
  • Integumentary
  • Sports
  • Gynaecology and Urology
  • Lymphatic Drainage


Candidate must have passed 10+2 with relevant subjects from any recognized board.

Some of the top colleges for B.P.T. are:

  1. B.O.T. (Bachelor of Occupational Therapy)

Occupational Therapy treats a physically or mentally disabled person by involvement in certain activities. It is all about making the daily life of a differently abled person better and easier.

Occupational Therapists help their patients become independent to the maximum possible extent.


  • Physical Dysfunctions
  • Paediatrics
  • Cardiopulmonary
  • Cumulative Trauma Disorders
  • Community
  • Neurological Disorder
  • Geriatric
  • Mental Health.


The duration of B.O.T. is 4 ½ years including 6 months of internship.


Candidate must have passed 10+2 Science (PCB) from any recognized board. Most of the colleges or institutes provide admission on the basis of entrance examinations conducted at national or state level.

  1. B.M.L.T./D.M.L.T. (Bachelor of Medical Lab Technology/Diploma of Medical Lab Technology)

A Lab Technician’s work includes:

  • Setting up, cleaning and maintaining laboratory equipment
  • Diagnosis of diseases like cancer, diabetes, AIDS
  • Assisting the physicians in prevention and diagnosis of a disease by testing tissues, blood, urine etc.

The leading career prospects as Lab Technicians are in Hospitals, Clinics, Research, and Teaching.

To start your career as a Lab Technician, you can go for a B.M.L.T. or D.M.L.T. Though most Lab Technicians are masters of all trades; the following are the primary specializations in this field.


  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Hematology
  • Coagulation
  • Microbiology
  • Bacteriology
  • Toxicology
  • Parasitology
  • Virology
  • Mycology
  • Immunology
  • Immunohematology (Blood bank)
  • Histopathology
  • Histocompatibility
  • Cytopathology
  • Genetics
  • Cytogenetics
  • Electron Microscopy.


  • B.M.L.T.: 3 years
  • D.M.L.T.: 2 years


Candidate must have passed 10+2 (Science with Biology) from any recognized board.

This list contains only the eight main courses after 12th science medical field that have gained importance in the recent times. However, these are not the only options available after 12th (Science). A lot more other options like Geology, Zoology, Forensic Sciences, Agriculture, Microbiology, Food Technology, etc. are also available which I will discuss in my next article.

5 thoughts on “Courses After 12th Science In Medical Field

  1. After completing my 12th standard, I was looking for information on career oriented courses. It’s really a great and useful piece of information. I’m glad that you shared this helpful information with us.

  2. Wonderful article! I am 12th science student so was looking for combination of science, healthcare, technology, research, and computer technology and found the field of pharmacy very exciting. You have shared great article here which gives deep insights into Pharmacy as a career, the academic path to pursue it, and its scope. Thanks a lot!

  3. There are endless options for science students after 12th it totally depends students where he wants to pursue his or her carrier they can go for neat and become a doctor they can also go for Pharmacy and become a pharmacist there is one advance course these days which students are choosing to make there carrier bright that is Radiology because these days as a growing phase of science most of the hospitals and health centers need radiologist, radiology devide in many segments such a as MRI Radiobiology, Radio Diagnosis, Radiotherapy, Clinical Trials,Palliative Care and Chemotherapy. Quantum University providing Bsc. Radiology along with interdisciplinary programs.


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